2. Census Bureau (1998 and 1999), tables 14 and 14a and calculations of the author. Estimated trade flows for 1999 based on January-November data and comparisons with trade flows for the previous year and the full year 1998. Section 301 has been used sparingly since 1999. Moreover, its use is closely linked to multilateral dispute settlement, at least for WTO members and in areas subject to WTO rules and disciplines. Nevertheless, investigations continued to be launched and reports and lists of countries considered guilty were published. The United States also monitors compliance with intellectual property agreements abroad through special investigations 301. In the 2001 review, 51 countries were found to have denied U.S. rights holders adequate intellectual property protection or fair market access. In order to determine the violation of U.S. intellectual property rights, investigations are also conducted under Section 337.
As a new member, China has agreed to rapidly reduce import tariffs and open its markets, although many trade representatives have doubted these promises.  China lowered tariffs after joining the WTO, but continued to steal U.S. intellectual property (IP) and forced U.S. companies to transfer technologies to access the Chinese market, in violation of WTO rules.  Were all 5 million of these jobs lost because of trade with China? Not at all – many probably disappeared when machines replaced human labor in factories. Has American production completely disappeared? Nope – before the Great Recession, production reached a record level. But starting in 2013, economists David Autor, David Dorn and Gordon Hanson, along with other collaborators, began publishing a series of documents showing that manufacturing employment had declined significantly more sharply in parts of the United States, where local firms faced fierce competition from Chinese imports, compared to places where the industry was less exposed. Between 1999 and 2011, the authors estimate that about 985,000 jobs in U.S. manufacturing were lost by the boom in Chinese exports. Combined with restaurants, movie theaters and other stores that fade when plants were closed, the researchers estimated that the “Chinese shock,” as they called it, cost the United States between 2 and 2.4 million jobs, from the Rust Belt to the south to the extreme corners of New England.
The U.S. Trade and Development Act (TDA) of 2000, which contains both the African Growth and Opportunity Act, and the Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act to expand the Caribbean Basin initiative will greatly benefit countries in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. Under the ADD, imports of textiles and clothing from recipient countries are imported into the United States duty- and quota-free, subject to substantive requirements for inputs produced in the United States. This provision should ensure that U.S. input producers also benefit from the agreement, perhaps at the expense of third-country suppliers. With a blunder. On the Clinton administration`s continued trade in China, Becker said the Steelworkers board would meet in three weeks to discuss its strategy at the next election. In 1984, the United States became China`s third largest trading partner and China became America`s 14th largest trading partner. However, the annual renewal of Chinese MFN status has been constantly questioned by anti-Chinese interest groups at hearings in the US Congress. For example, in five years, U.S. imports from China have almost doubled, from $51.5 billion in 1996 to $102 billion in 2001. Under the WTO agreement on textiles and clothing, the U.S. textile industry claimed and obtained tariffs on Chinese textiles.